Stormwater management is the process or the act of dealing with the quantity and condition of storm water. This includes structural and manufactured control devices and systems (e.g. retention ponds) for treating dirty water, as well as functional or procedural routines. Management of storm water is really important, particularly in cities where storm water runoff is an issue.
Stormwater is not merely water that is produced by rains or stormy weather. The term is applied to more or less all water from precipitation events, which includes snowfall or runoff water caused by overwatering. Stormwater is of concern for two main reasons. The first reason is related to the amount and time of runoff water (such as flood control and water supplies) and the other is related to the probable contaminants that the water is carrying.
Unlike loose earth or sand, impervious areas like parking lots, roads, buildings, and compacted earth do not permit water to drain into the ground. This is why additional runoff water is generated in metropolitan areas and urbanized places compared to non-urban or forested regions. This is unfortunate and can be detrimental to the environment since as opposed to being spent as runoff water, it would have refreshed groundwater or supply stream base flow in dry climatic conditions.
Research shows that added runoff could erode watercourses, such as streams and rivers, and contribute to floods if the water collection system is overwhelmed from the additional flow. If not correctly maintained, runoff water coming from major or continuous rainfall might cause significant destruction to human lives and property.
Contaminated runoff can result from impurities entering surface waters during precipitation events. It isn't as rare as you might imagine. Daily human actions deposit pollutants on the highways, turf, homes, and farm areas. They are grabbed by runoffs then ultimately end up in rivers, lakes and oceans in sizeable quantities.
In a few locations, contaminated runoff from the roadways and freeways may be the biggest supply of water pollution. Other side effects of contaminated storm water are stream erosion, weed invasion as well as changes to natural flow patterns. Unfortunately, many native types depend on those patterns and circulation rates for spawning, growth and also migration. Several management techniques were created to remove impurities from runoffs before they pollute surface waters or groundwater resources.
Management of water may be source management, so unsafe substances are taken care of to stop release of pollution into the ecosystem. However, natural rivers that still exist or can be rehabilitated can be acquired and protected. Building soft structures like ponds, swales or even wetlands to work alongside existing or "hard" drainage structures (like pipes and concrete channels) can also be useful for managing runoffs.
Stormwater management might be more productive by educating people about how human actions have an impact on water quality and the things they can do to better the situation. Current laws and ordinances should be enhanced to cope with extensive storm water needs and make sure that people think about the results of stormwater before, during and after development of their property. On the whole, people working together with the law could make a big difference in reducing the unwanted side effects of runoff on the environment.
Effective stormwater management is essential to the communities we live in. The benefits of stormwater solutions can instantly be seen after a torrential rainfall, and efficient management is key.